The Latest Advances in Chiral Liquid Chromatography Stationary Phases for Pharmaceutical Analysis

The Latest Advances in Chiral Liquid Chromatography Stationary Phases for Pharmaceutical Analysis

This article provides a comprehensive review of recent developments in chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for pharmaceutical analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The focus of the research is on three categories of CSPs: saccharides, macrocyclic substances, and porous organic materials.

Chirality in drugs presents a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry, as optically pure medications are desired. Chiral medications have different pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity, and often only one enantiomer has a therapeutic effect. The use of CSPs in conjunction with HPLC can effectively separate more than 90% of optically active compounds.

The researchers mainly examined direct methods of HPLC separation, particularly focusing on macrocyclic compounds and porous organic frameworks. The direct method is preferred for its simplicity and convenience, although commercial CSPs can be expensive. However, these CSPs are still considered to have limited separation ability, leading to the constant search for more efficient and economical options.

One important point highlighted by the researchers is the lack of reports on real samples in previous studies, indicating the current state of poor selectivity of CSPs. To address this issue, they emphasize the importance of high selectivity and column capacity of stationary phases.

The article also evaluates the three categories of CSPs in detail. Saccharide-based CSPs were the first to be developed and have numerous derivative chiral columns available on the market. Macrocycles, with their cavity structure and easily modifiable surface, are gaining traction. Porous organic frameworks, such as covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), show promise but are not widely employed in chiral drug separation applications.

Further research suggestions include exploring the chiral separation process in terms of analyte-CSP interactions. Additionally, more comprehensive calculations and measurements are needed to evaluate complex pharmacological molecule structures.

In conclusion, this review emphasizes the importance of advancing chiral stationary phases for pharmaceutical analysis. The development of more efficient and selective CSPs has the potential to greatly contribute to the production of optically pure medications.

Liu, H.; Wu, Z.; Chen, J.; Wang, J.; Qiu, H. Recent Advances in Chiral Liquid Chromatography Stationary Phases for Pharmaceutical Analysis. J. Chromatogr. A 2023, 1708, 464367.

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