The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, with approximately 13 million new infections each year. Infection with HPV can lead to the development of warts or various types of cancers, including cancers of the anus, cervix, penis, vagina, and mouth and throat. To prevent HPV infection, vaccines have been developed and are recommended for adolescents and young adults.
HPV vaccines are designed to target specific strains of the virus and prevent infection. Currently, there are three vaccines approved by the FDA: a bivalent vaccine, a quadrivalent vaccine, and a 9-valent vaccine. The 9-valent vaccine is the only one distributed in the United States. These vaccines have been shown to be over 99% effective in preventing infection with the specific strains of HPV covered by the vaccination.
In terms of safety, the most common side effects of the HPV vaccine include pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site. Other side effects may include fever, headache, nausea, and muscle and joint pain. Serious adverse events are rare. Studies have shown that the benefits of HPV vaccination outweigh the risks.
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine HPV vaccination for adolescents aged 11 or 12 years, although the series can be given as young as 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for those who were not vaccinated during adolescence, up to age 26. For non-vaccinated individuals aged 27 to 45 years, shared clinical decision-making is recommended based on the individual’s risk of new HPV infection or exposure.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends initiating HPV vaccination in children aged 9 to 12 years, while the American Cancer Society also recommends routine vaccination for males and females in this age group.
The dosing schedule for HPV vaccination varies depending on the age of the individual. For patients aged 9 to 14 years, a 2-dose schedule is recommended, with the second dose administered 6 to 12 months after the first. For patients who receive their first dose at age 15 or older, or who are immunocompromised, a 3-dose schedule is recommended.
It’s important to note that the World Health Organization (WHO) has different recommendations regarding the number of doses needed for HPV vaccination. The WHO suggests a 1- or 2-dose schedule compared to the 2- or 3-dose series recommended by the CDC. The 1-dose schedule may provide similar efficacy and increase access to the vaccine, but it is considered an alternative, off-label option.
In conclusion, HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing HPV infection and associated diseases. Vaccination is recommended for adolescents, young adults, and those at risk of new HPV infection or exposure. Following the recommended dosing schedule and considering individual factors can help ensure the best possible protection against the virus.
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